Joseph Gold Papers

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Record Group
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BIOGRAPHY

This set of collection aims to give the researcher a glimpse of atomic spy Harry Gold and his younger brother Joseph Gold's personal and public lives.
 

The Golodnitskys, as Russian Jewish immigrants, moved from Kiev to Philadelphia with their sons Joseph and Harry during the 1920s.

Harry who was born in Switzerland in 1912, received training as a biochemist.

In 1950, Harry Gold pleaded guilty for passing U.S. atomic secrets to Russian agents and charged with violating the Espionage Act of 1917. He was sentenced to 30 years. Gold served more than 16 years at the Federal Penitentiary at Lewisburg, PA. During this time, his applications for parole were declined three times until his release in 1966.

While in Lewisburg, Gold developed a blood sugar test for diabetes from which his brother suffered and received a patent on the test.

Within one month of his parole, Harry took a job running a bio-chemistry laboratory at John F. Kennedy Memorial Hospital.
Harry Gold attended Temple University after his release and received a diploma in health sciences.

Harry Gold died at the age of 60 in August 28, 1972 while undergoing an open heart surgery.

After his brother Joseph Gold's death at the age of 72 in October 22, 1989, this collection was received via Gret Gentille as a gift of Joseph Gold Estate in March 20, 1990.

The collection represents correspondence, legal documents, clippings, photographs and negatives, focusing on the trial of Harry Gold, his conviction and his brother Joseph's efforts to secure the parole.

 

CONTENTS:

Box 1:

A-HARRY GOLD

     A.1  BEFORE HIS PRISON YEARS (PRE-1950)

          a.1.1  Notebooks, address books (1944)

 

Box 2:

(Flat)   
a.1.2  Lecture notes, chemistry notes, etc.
a.1.3  Certificates, diplomas, college years photos
a.1.4  Military Service Records (1946)

Box 3:

A.2  1950-1951 (ARREST AND TRIAL)
a.2.1   Clippings on Gold trial
a.2.2   Clippings on Rosenberg trial

Box 4:
a.2.3   Articles in magazines

                 * "Case and Comment," March-April 1951

                 * "The Reader's Digest," May 1951 (2 issues)

                 * "Argosy," October 1953

                 * "U.S. News & World Report," August 19, 1955

                 * "Time," December 18, 1950

                 * "Time," April 16, 1951

                 * "Life," June 12, 1950

                 * "Life," March 26, 1951

                 * "Look," June 19, 1951

                 * "Post," January 20, 1951

Box 5:

          a.2.4   Personal Notes / Incoming Letters

                 Christmas cards (1962), Letters from Sister M Isabelle (Divine Providence Hospital, 1964)

         a.2.5   Committee on Un-American Activities Report                (Dec. 30, 1951)

    A.3 THE PRISON YEARS (1951-1966)

          a.3.1   Clippings from the period (1951-1966)
          a.3.2   Harry Gold's Letters to Joseph Gold chronologically sorted, January 9 1963 –May  15, 1966)
          a.3.3   Harry Gold's Personal Notes (1951)
          a.3.4   Sugar Test Materials
          a.3.4.1 Clippings on the issue / information concerning the process
          a.3.4.2 Correspondence for getting patent for Blood Sugar Test(Hospitals, Medical Instrument Companies, and Labs'                                                      
                      request letters to attorney A.Ballard
                      to evaluate Blood Sugar Test(1959-1966)
                      Letters after an article on Harry Gold's
                      test which appeared on the March'64 issue
                      of "Lab World" (1964-1966)
          a.3.5   Personal collections of American Medical Technologies cards, convention programs
                     (1961-1964)
          a.3.6   Harry Gold's scientific studies (Medical journal subscriptions, membership documents to Medical Associations, clippings on                                  
                     science (1960s), medical book purchases, etc)

Box 6:

A.4  AFTER RELEASE (1966-1972)

          a.4.1   Clippings from 1966
          a.4.2   Invoices and checks (1970-1971)
          a.4.3   Photographs from the recent years

A.5  POST-DEATH (AFTER 1972)

          a.5.1   Clippings about the death
          a.5.2   Harry Gold's Will

 

Box 7:

B-JOSEPH GOLD

     B.1  PERSONAL

          b.1.1   Notes to Harry Gold (Hand-written letters from Joseph to Harry Gold)
          b.1.2   1950-1965 & undated notes of Joseph Gold
          b.1.3   Mr. and Mrs. Green's letters to Joseph Gold
                     (1974-1975 / The couple is old friends of the Gold family)
         b.1.4   Manuscripts, letters and reviews related to Schneirs' book 
                    (Harry Gold's hand-written notes on the book, correspondence between attorney A. Ballard vs.  
                    Harry Gold about the book (August 2,17; September 7,27), reviews of the book in  
                    "Christian Science Monitor," September 30, 1965 and "New York Times Book Review" date unknown)
          b.1.5   Visiting regulations for Samuel Gold (father of Harry and Joseph) and Joseph Gold (1951)

 

Box 8:
(Flat)   

          b.1.6   Photographs (1957-1960) to be sent to Harry Gold & Joseph Gold's photographs when he was
                     serving the military

Box 9:

     B.2  LEGAL (ATTORNEY CORRESPONDENCE) (HARRY & JOSEPH GOLD)

          b.2.1   Attorney correspondence (1950s)

                 * List of items received from Harry Gold, May 22, 1950

                 * List of items taken from the home of Joseph Gold, June 3, 1950

                 * Hand-written notes from D.M. Hamilton and A. Ballard (July 31, 1950/August 31, 1950)

                 * In the name of Pepper, Bodine, Stokes & Hamilton Law Office, Augustus S. Ballard vs.
                    Harry Gold concerning his loan at the Corn Exchange (August 14, 1950)

                 * Frank Kessler vs. A.S Ballard (About Kessler's and Hamilton's being appointed as councils for Harry Gold, August 22, 1950)

                 * Hand-written notes for the attorneys (September 1950)

                 * Attorney Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (concerning Harry's file) (December 12, 1950)

                 * Harry Gold vs.John Hamilton (February 7,8,15 1951)

                 * Harry Gold vs. John Hamilton (concerning a mistake in "Time" magazine) (March 22, 1951)

                 * Harry Gold-Seymour Berkson/International News Service (concerning an offer for an article,
                    April 10, 1951); on the same issue John Hamilton vs. Harry Gold, April 25, 1951

                 * U.S. attorney Myles J. Lane vs. Joseph Gold (about Harry's situation, October 29, 1951)

                 * John Hamilton vs. Attorney General from Department of Justice James P. McGraney
                    (about visit regulations, November 12, 1952)

     * Joseph Gold vs. John Hamilton (about Harry's testify in front of the Grand Jury, November 20, 1952)

                 * John Hamilton vs. FBI (N.S. Harzenstein) (concerning the records covering the
                    interviews of A. Ballard, Harzenstein and Harry Gold, October 21, 1953)

                 * Roy M. Cohn (U.S. attorney) vs. J. Hamilton (concerning the harshness of Gold's sentence, November 6, 1953)

                 * Augustus Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (about Harry's legal status, November 14, 1956)

          b.2.2   Attorney Correspondence (1960-1962)

                 * Attorney Martin M. Krimsky (Rosenzweig, Krimsky & Goichman Law Office) vs. Joseph
                   Gold (about the reimbursement of medical expenses, March 14, 1962)

                 * Augustus S. Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (May 16, 1962)

                 * Martin M. Krimsky vs. Joseph Gold (about Harry's request from chemistry labs, November6, 1962)

          b.2.3   Attorney Correspondence (1963-1964)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Harry Gold (about the Petition  for Executive Clemency, February 15, 1963)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (about the Petition for Executive Clemency, March 22, 1963)

                 * Attorney Irwin N. Rosenzweig (Rosenzweig, Krimsky & Goichman Law Office) vs. Joseph
                    Gold (about a letter from the publishers of "Lab World", June 10, 1963)

                 * Reed Cozart (Pardon Attorney) vs. A. Ballard (about the final decision on granting
                    clemency, August 2, 1963)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (about the Petition for Executive Clemency, August 5, 1963)

                 * Martin M. Krimsky vs. Joseph Gold (about check balance, September 25, 1963)

                 * Irwin N. Rosenzweig vs. Joseph Gold (about Joseph's termination of Rosenzweig's
                    service as council relating to blood sugar test, April 9, 1964)

          b.2.4   Attorney Correspondence (1966-1968)
                 
                 * Reed Cozart (Pardon Attorney) vs. A. Ballard(about the reduction in Harry's
                    sentence, February 7, 1966)

                 * Attorney William M. Kunstler (Kunstler Kunstler & Kinoy Law Firm) vs. A. Ballard
                    (request for pre-trial documents, February 16, 1966); on the same issue, February 17,
                    1966)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Harry Gold (enclosing Judge Weinfeld's opinion on Morton Sobell case,
                    March 2, 1967 / 2 copies)

                 * Warden Jacob Parker vs. A. Ballard (about transportation on the day of his release, May
                    10, 1966)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Harry Gold (about Martin Sobell's case, January 23, 1968; on the same
                   issue, February 7, 1968

          b.2.5   Attorney Correspondence (1973 & 1983)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (Samuel Gold's passing, February 9, 1973)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (October 11, 1983)

         b.2.6   Attorney Correspondence (After Harry's Death)                 (1972-1974)

                 * Cecilia M. Lumsden (Estate Department) vs.  Joseph Gold (on Estate of Harry Gold)
                    (September 28, October 12,26, November 21, December 21, 1972)

                 * Gregory Alexander (Pepper, Hamilton & Scheetz Law Firm) vs. I.A. Iossifides (JFK Hospital)
                    (October 13, 1972)

                 * Gregory Alexander vs.Joseph Gold (May 3, 1973 & June 26, 1973)

                 * A. Ballard vs. Joseph Gold (February 28, 1974 & March 7, 1974)

          b.2.7   Attorney Correspondence (Parole Petitions) (1954-1966)

                 Application letters to the U.S. Board of Parole by Joseph Gold and Pepper, Hamilton & Scheetz
                 Law Firm (Augustus S. Ballard and J.D.M. Hamilton)

 

Box 10:

 

(?)  C-OTHER

          C.1  CLIPPINGS UNRELATED TO THE CASE      

          C.2  A LETTER FROM SPECIAL COUNCIL ALFRED GINSBURG TO                  
                 JOSEPH GOLD ABOUT THE ESTATE OF CECILIA GOLD (1950)

          C.3  CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MR. FRANK KESSLER AND HARRY GOLD (1938)

          C.4  CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN MR. FRANK KESSLER AND MR. AND MRS. KESSLER (1935)

 

Box 11:
(Flat)
          C.5  PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE GOLD FAMILY BEFORE THEY IMMIGRATED FROM EUROPE TO THE U.S.

 

Box 12:

(Flat)

          C.6  NEGATIVES


Bibliography (Books)

* Albright, Joseph and Marcia Kunstel. Bombshell: The Secret Story of America's Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy. NY: Times   Books, 1997.

* Klehr, Harvey and Ronald Radosh. The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina,   1996.

* Norman, Moss. Klaus Fuchs: The Man Who Stole the Atom Bomb. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

* Pilot, Oliver. The Atom Spies. New York: Van Rees Press, 1952.

* Polmar, Norman and Thomas B. Allen. Spy Book: The Encyclopedia   of Espionage. New York: Random House, 1996.

* Reuben, William A. The Atom Spy Hoax. New York: Action Books,    1955.

* Schneir, Walter and Miriam Schneir. Invitation to an Inquest.    New York: Doubleday and Company, 1965.

* Volkman, Ernest. Espionage: The Greatest Spy Operations of the      Twentieth Century. New York: J.Wiley and Sons, 1995.

* Williams, Robert Chadwell. Klaus Fuchs. Atom Spy. Cambridge,     Mass: Harvard University Press, 1987.

 

Recent Books on the Rosenberg Trial

* Neville, John F. The Press, the Rosenbergs, and the Cold War.      Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

* Radosh, Ronald and Joyce Milton. The Rosenberg File. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Manuscripts

 

* Joseph Gold's Letter to Jonathan Williams (Dec.8, 1964)
   Jargon Society Collection, Control No: NYBR89-A19974

* Swarthmore College Collection (1914-1974) containing the   
   espionage case of Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell. Control No:CSUZ86027-A

* The U.S. Intelligence Community: Organization, Operations and
   Management, 1947-1989, 266 microfiches.
   Location: Yale University Library, P.O. 208240 New Haven, CT 06520-8240
   Control No: CTYV91-A223

* Gaede, Erwin A. Sobell Papers (1959-1966) Control No: MIUR85-A35

* Mink, Art (collector). Papers (1950-1951)
   Location: University of Washington Libraries (Seattle)
   Control No: DCLV88-A319

* Solow, Herbert. Papers (1924-1976) 
   Solow is an American journalist, editor in "Fortune" magazine (1945-1964)
   12 ms. boxes include Alger Hiss case. Control No: CSUZ77101-A