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Abraham L. Freedman Papers: Collection Overview

Collection ID

SCRC 49

Related Subject(s)

Collecting Area(s)

Description

Funding for the processing of this collection provided by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation as administered through the Council on Library and Information Resources’ “Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives” Program
 
 
Collection Summary 
 
Title
Abraham L. Freedman Papers
 
Dates
1850-2011, bulk 1938-1971
 
Collection ID
SCRC 49
 
Creator
Freedman, Abraham L., 1904-1971
 
Quantity
45.25 linear feet (107 boxes)
 
Repository
Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries
 
Language
Materials in English, French, German, and Hebrew.
 
 
Detailed Collection Information 
 
Abstract
The Honorable Abraham L. Freedman, a long-time attorney and later judge, was an influential civic leader in Philadelphia’s movements towards political and civic reform in the 1940s and 1950s. As a staunch Democrat, Freedman’s career highlights include helping draft a new charter for the city of Philadelphia (and later serving as city solicitor under the newly instated charter), extensive work as an anti-discrimination advocate for racial and ethnic minorities, and federal judicial appointments with the United States District Court and the United States Court of Appeals. This collection, which dates from 1850 to 2011, with bulk dates of 1938 to 1971, consists of correspondence, case files, logs, research, memoranda, writings, speeches, reports, manuscripts, and clippings evidencing the workings of city and state government, especially during the period of the City-County Consolidation. Additionally, the records document social turmoil regarding race relations in Philadelphia, and the efforts of civic associations to change the social climate and opinions on various ethnic and cultural groups. The collection provides an in-depth view of how Philadelphia politics and changes in government shaped the city into what it is today, as well as uniquely documenting the cultural climate in Philadelphia at the time.
 
 
Biographical Note
The Honorable Abraham L. Freedman, a long-time attorney and later judge, was an influential civic leader in Philadelphia’s movements towards political and civic reform in the 1940s and 1950s. As a staunch Democrat, Freedman’s career highlights include helping draft a new charter for the city of Philadelphia (and later serving as city solicitor under the newly instated charter), extensive work as an anti-discrimination advocate for racial and ethnic minorities, and federal judicial appointments with the United States District Court and the United States Court of Appeals.
 
Freedman was born in Trenton, New Jersey in 1904; his family later moved to West Philadelphia during World War I. He entered Temple University Law School in 1922 and graduated with an LL.B in 1926. He became a member of the Pennsylvania bar that same year; his private legal practice spanned more than thirty years in total, from 1926 to 1952, and then also from 1956 to 1961. He joined the prestigious Philadelphia-based Jewish law firm of Wolf, Block, Schorr, and Solis-Cohen in 1929.
 
Establishing an early interest in legal reform and scholarship, he researched and published numerous articles and book reviews regarding subjects such as building and loan associations, writ of coram nobis, and marriage and divorce law. In 1939, he co-authored the seminal legal treatise, “The Law of Marriage and Divorce in Pennsylvania” with his brother Maurice Freedman. From 1931 to 1944, he taught domestic relations law at Temple University Law School.
 
From 1940 to 1961, Freedman served as legal counsel for the Philadelphia Housing Association, and for the Philadelphia Housing Authority from 1938 to 1949. In his legal practice, he also frequently represented minority clients whose housing applications had been rejected based on racial discrimination. At the same time, he became more involved in Jewish community efforts to combat anti-Semitism, particularly as it related to job and education discrimination.
 
Freedman became increasingly interested in local politics and civic activities. He served as president of the Jewish Community Relations Council from 1944 to 1947, during which time he worked with other civic and religious leaders to combat mounting racial tension in Philadelphia. He was active in the Democratic Party, as well as Americans for Democratic Action, and subsequently supported 1947 mayoral (losing) candidate Richardson Dilworth. Shortly thereafter, Freedman was appointed to serve on the Philadelphia Charter Commission and its drafting committee, where he played an instrumental role in researching and drafting a new city charter. The Philadelphia Home Rule Charter was adopted in 1951 and helped to solidify long fought for political reforms, including reducing the number of political patronage positions, creating a commission on human relations, and increasing the power of the mayor and other executive branch offices. The Philadelphia Home Rule Charter was the first United States city charter to ban racial and religious discrimination in city employment, contracts, and services.
 
After the Democratic Party won the 1951 election for both Mayor and District Attorney, Freedman was appointed the first City Solicitor under the newly adopted charter. He served as City Solicitor from 1952 to 1956, during which time he successfully defended a number of influential cases. One of the most controversial cases involved the status of Girard College as a public institution governed by Philadelphia under the will of Stephen Girard, which excluded students of color. Freedman, along with Councilman Raymond Pace Alexander, sought to desegregate the school by challenging Girard’s will on behalf of several applicants of color. Although Freedman resigned from his position as City Solicitor in 1956, he was allowed to continue as Special Counsel in the Girard College case. Freedman returned to private legal practice and rejoined his former firm of Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen in 1958. He continued his involvement with religious and civic organizations by assuming various leadership roles with the Jewish Community Relations Council, the Federation of Jewish Agencies, the Greater Philadelphia Movement, and others. He also became an instructor at the University of Pennsylvania.
 
Continuing to support the Democratic Party’s local, state, and national efforts, Freedman was involved with several campaigns. These included serving as chairman of Citizens for Clark and writing speeches during Joseph S. Clark’s successful 1956 senate campaign, supporting Richard Dilworth in his re-election campaign for Philadelphia mayor in 1959, and serving as co-chairman of Citizens for Kennedy in John F. Kennedy’s 1960 presidential campaign.
 
In 1961, President Kennedy appointed Freedman to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, a position he held until his appointment to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit by President Johnson in 1964. As a district, and then appellate, judge, Freedman continued with his interests in legal scholarship and civic activities. In particular, he participated in the Ford Foundation’s “Gray Areas” urban renewal project for Philadelphia, as well as helped to form the Philadelphia Council for Civic Advancement. Freedman continued to serve as appellate judge until his death in 1971. He was survived by his wife, Jane, and two children, Robert and Margery.
 
 
Description of Collection 
The Abraham L. Freedman papers documents the work of the Honorable Abraham L. Freedman, former Philadelphia City Solicitor, lawyer, and judge. This collection, which dates from 1850 to 2011, with bulk dates of 1938 to 1971, consists of correspondence, case files, logs, research, memoranda, writings, speeches, reports, manuscripts, and clippings evidencing the workings of city and state government, especially during the period of the City-County Consolidation. Additionally, the records document social turmoil regarding race relations in Philadelphia, and the efforts of civic associations to change the social climate and opinions on various ethnic and cultural groups. The collection provides an in-depth view of how Philadelphia politics and changes in government shaped the city into what it is today, as well as uniquely documenting the cultural climate in Philadelphia, especially during the 1950s and 1960s. 
 
This collection is unique in that it evidences civil rights struggles in the mid-20th century in Philadelphia; the struggle for equal education for children from ethnic and cultural minorities is a particular focus. Additionally, the collection provides a great amount of documentation relating to large-scale changes in city government structure, such as the City-County Consolidation and revision of the City Charter, as well as the daily workings of the city government and associated branches. Tracing the evolution of Freedman’s career in relation to his strong ties to civil and community associations, along with his passion for civil rights, provides a look at the role of civic engagement in the professional and social lives of mid-20th century citizens.
 
 
Organization and Arrangement 
The collection is arranged into four series as follows:
 
Subseries 1a: Private legal practice, 1850-1970, bulk 1920-1970
Subseries 1b: Political campaigns, 1920-1969, bulk 1943-1969
Subseries 1c: City solicitor, 1927-1970
Subseries 1d: Judicial career, 1952-2011, bulk 1952-1971
Subseries 1e: Civic associations, 1942-1970
          Subseries 4a: Private legal practive, 1918-1965
          Subseries 4b: Political campaigns, circa 1951, 1967
          Subseries 4c: City solicitor, 1949-1965
          Subseries 4d: Judicial career, 1961-1970
          Subseries 4e: Civic associations, 1956-1959
          Subseries 4f: Writings, speeches, and teaching files, 1941-1968
          Subseries 4g: Correspondence and personal papers, 1926-1997
 
Series 1: Professional and legal career, includes records and correspondence that relate to the legal, professional, and civic activities that Freedman took part in during the bulk of his career. The records in this series date from 1850 to 2011. This series is divided into five subseries: “Ia. Private legal practice,” “Ib. Political campaigns,” “Ic. City solicitor,” “Id. Judicial career,” and “Ie. Civic associations.” Access to City Solicitor Law Department personnel records in this series is restricted for 75 years from date of creation.
 
Subseries 1a: Private legal practice, is arranged chronologically and dates from 1850 to 1970, with the bulk of materials dating from 1920 to 1970. This subseries includes records from Freedman’s early career as a lawyer, as well as some of his activities with the Philadelphia Housing Association. This includes drafts and copies of his manuscript, Law of Marriage and Divorce in Philadelphia, which he co-authored with his brother, Martin Freedman. There are also a variety of case file records, such as briefs and opinions, as well as personal logs of Freedman’s daily activities, and correspondence and reports from colleagues and other professionals, mostly regarding housing and labor laws, especially within the Philadelphia Housing Association subject.
 
Subseries 1b: Political campaigns, is arranged chronologically and dates from 1920 to 1969, with the bulk of records dating from 1943 to 1969. This subseries includes records from Philadelphia and Pennsylvania campaigns including those of Joseph S. Clark Jr., William C. Bullitt, and Richardson Dilworth (filed under such titles as “Clark for Senate,” “Bullitt for Mayor,” and the “Clark and Dilworth campaign.”) The records mostly consist of correspondence with the candidates regarding campaign techniques and platforms, clippings regarding the status of the campaigns, and a variety of speeches and promotional materials, including a script from a television commercial delivered by Joseph S. Clark, Jr. for the Clark and Dilworth campaign. The subseries also includes financial records, membership reports, and other campaign research materials. This subseries will be of particular interest for researchers interested in Joseph S. Clark, Jr., Richardson Dilworth, and William C. Bullitt and their respective political careers.
 
Subseries 1c: City solicitor, is arranged chronologically and dates from 1927 to 1970. This subseries includes records created and collected by Freedman during his tenure as the Philadelphia City Solicitor. Many of these records fall into specific categories, which include “City Charter,” “Girard College” and “Philadelphia City-County Consolidation.” The records include a variety of reports, correspondence, clippings, logs, and research materials regarding duties and issues surrounding the City Solicitor position. Researchers will be interested to find, in particular, detailed records of the process of rewriting the Philadelphia City Charter and proposed City-County Consolidation, including drafts and records of public hearings. The subseries also includes clippings detailing public opinion of the revisions, as well as records of the activities and correspondence of the City Charter Commission. Aside from records of the charter, there are bound copies of Freedman’s opinions as City Solicitor, various case files and research, speeches, a radio broadcast, financial reports, and other records related to Philadelphia city government.
 
Subseries 1d: Judicial career, is arranged chronologically and dates from 1952 to 2011, with the bulk of materials dating from 1952 to 1971. The subseries includes records created and collected by Freedman during his judicial career, which includes positions on the District Court and Third Circuit Court of Appeals. Many of the records include correspondence regarding Freedman’s bids for judgeship, a variety of letters of recommendation, and clippings regarding the status of judicial appointments and candidates. Also included are congratulatory correspondence regarding Freedman’s judicial appointments, case files, employee records of some of Freedman’s law clerks and messengers, correspondence regarding participation in student moot courts, and a recording of a radio broadcast. 
 
Subseries 1e: Civic associations, dates from 1942 to 1970, and is arranged alphabetically by association name, and then chronologically within each association. Associations particularly well-documented in the subseries include the Federation of Jewish Agencies (FJA), the Greater Philadelphia Movement, the Jewish Community Relations Council (JCRC), and the Philadelphia Council for Community Advancement (PCCA). Records consist of correspondence, memoranda, membership lists, minutes, publicity materials, clippings and research, and reports regarding the administrative duties of each organization and plans for projects or goals within the community. Notable projects include the establishment of a medical school by the Federation of Jewish Agencies and the Community Development Program of the Philadelphia Council for Community Advancement. These records will be of interest to researchers concerned with the development of Jewish civic associations in particular, as well as other associations involved in preventing racial and social discrimination. 
 
Series 2: Writings, speeches, and teaching files, series dates from 1918 to 2006, with the bulk of materials dating from 1928 to 1971. The series includes materials that fall into four main categories, which are grouped together and arranged chronologically within those categories. The categories are “Girard College manuscript,” “writings,” “speeches,” and “teaching files.” Materials in the first category relate to Freedman’s manuscript, “A Will and a Wall: Stephen Girard and His College,” which details the history of the Estate of Stephen Girard case, for which Freedman served as counsel. These include many drafts of the manuscript, research materials, general correspondence, press clippings, legal case files, and correspondence with publisher Alfred A. Knopf. The “writings” category includes many original works by Freedman, both published and unpublished. Writings include early prose and poetry, law review and other journal articles, short stories and essays, a play about Leon Sunstein, and eulogies and other tributes. The majority of the writings focuses on legal issues during Freedman’s career, most notably his journal titled “Story of Common Pleas Court” written about his failed attempt to receive a gubernatorial appointment to Philadelphia’s Court of Common Pleas in 1957; however, more personal works provide insight into Freedman’s creative side, such as short stories and reflections on his career. Speeches include presentations at annual meetings, conferences, conventions, award ceremonies, and seminars, as well as correspondence, research, notes, and other files relating to the speeches. Freedman’s teaching files constitute the final main category. Included are lecture and seminar materials, examination questions, correspondence, and logs from Freedman’s teaching positions at Temple University and the University of Pennsylvania. Additionally, photographs and copies of citations regarding his Honorary Doctor of Law degree from Temple University are found in this series. Access to student records containing grades in this series is restricted for 75 years from date of creation.
 
Series 3: Correspondence and personal papers, which dates from 1918 to 2007, with the bulk of materials dating from 1918 to 1971, is arranged alphabetically, with larger categories arranged chronologically within that system. The larger categories are “correspondence” and “letters”. Due to previous processing, some context has been lost with materials in these categories, especially the letters, as they do not include both sides of the conversation. Smaller categories include correspondence and financial documents relating to the Freedman residence at 1014 West Hortter Street in Philadelphia, and posthumous records such as eulogies and remembrances of Abraham Freedman. Other materials included in this series are announcements, catalog cards, interview transcripts, a case study by his son Robert L. Freedman, undergraduate education materials, and some photographs and digital reprints.
 
Series 4: Accession 2016-51, 1918-1997, 2011, is an accrual donated in 2016 after the bulk of Freedman’s personal papers were arranged and described. This series contains records similar in scope and content to the existing collection including materials related to his work on the Philadelphia Charter Commission and as Special Counsel for Housing on the Pennsylvania Post-War Planning Commission, as well as documentation from posthumous memorial services and dedications collected by Freedman’s son, Robert. Also in the series are photographs including portraits of Freedman as well as images of Raymond Pace Alexander, Joseph S. Clark taken at campaign events during his run for U.S. Senate, and Chief Justice Earl Warren, among others. This series is organized to reflect the arrangement of the previously processed collection.
 
Patron Information 
 
Catalog Record 
A record for this collection is available in Temple University’s online library catalog: http://diamond.temple.edu/record=b5710069~S30
 
Research Access 
Collection is open for research. Access to City Solicitor Law Department personnel records in series 1 and student records containing grades in series 2 is restricted for 75 years from date of creation. Restrictions, where applicable, are indicated at the file level in the container inventory.
 
Collections Stored Off-Site
This collection may be housed off-site at the Library Depository, and require up to two business days to retrieve. Please review the finding aid and be prepared to identify specific materials to be retrieved. Contact the Special Collections Research Center in advance of your visit, so that materials may be relocated to the reading room for research. 
 
Technical Access
Original audiovisual materials, as well as preservation and duplicating masters, may not be played. Researchers must consult use copies, or if none exist must pay for a use copy. 
 
Condition Note
Collection has been assessed for possible mold and boxes have been marked; precautions will be offered at time of access.
 
Publication and Copyright Information
The Abraham L. Freedman Papers are the physical property of the Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries. Literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. Researchers are responsible for determining the identity of rights holders and obtaining their permission for publication and for other purposes where stated. 
 
Preferred Citation
[Description and date of item], [Box/folder number], Abraham L. Freedman Papers, SCRC 49, Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
 
Administrative Information 
 
Acquisition Information
Donated by Robert Freedman in 2006 and 2007, with an addition donated in November 2016. The bulk of the collection was previously administered by the Philadelphia Jewish Archives Center, acquired by Temple in June 2009.
 
Processing Information 
Collection processed and finding aid prepared in December 2014 by Christiana Dobrzynski Grippe, Annalise Berdini, and Steven Duckworth, staff for the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries’ (PACSCL) “Uncovering Philadelphia’s Past: A Regional Solution to Revealing Hidden Collections” Project. Addtion to collection processed and finding aid revised in January 2017 by Jessica M. Lydon, Associate Archivist.
 
 
Index Terms
 
The following headings have been used to index the description of this collection in Temple University’s electronic catalog:
 
Personal/Family Names: 
Bullitt, William C. (William Christian), 1891-1967
Clark, Joseph S.
Dilworth, Richardson, 1898-1974
Freedman, Abraham L., 1904-1971  
Girard, Stephen, 1750-1831 -- Estate
 
Corporate Names: 
Federation of Jewish Agencies of Greater Philadelphia
Girard College
Greater Philadelphia Movement
Jewish Community Relations Council (Philadelphia Pa.)
Law Academy of Philadelphia
Pennsylvania Post-War Planning Commission
Philadelphia Charter Commission
Philadelphia Council for Community Advancement
Philadelphia Housing Association
Philadelphia Housing Authority
 
Subjects: 
Civic leaders
Civil rights
Discrimination in education
Discrimination in housing
Jewish judges
Jewish lawyers
Municipal charters – Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Municipal home rule -- Pennsylvania – Philadelphia
Political campaigns – Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
 
Places: 
Philadelphia (Pa.) -- Politics and government
Philadelphia (Pa.) -- Race relations
 
Material Types: 
Case files
Clippings
Compact discs
Correspondence
Financial records
Manuscripts
Minutes
Photographs
Speeches
Sound recordings