Francois Joseph Jérome Nicklés Papers

Collection ID: 
SPC MSS 006
Date: 
1840-2004, bulk 1840-1868
Footage: 
1.46 linear feet (4 boxes)
Collecting Area: 

 

Collection Summary

Title
Francois Joseph Jérome Nicklés Papers

Dates
1840-2004, bulk 1840-1868

Collection ID
SPC MSS 006 

Creator
Nicklés, Francois Joseph Jérome, 1821-1869
           
Quantity
1.46 linear feet (4 boxes)

Repository
Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries

Language
Materials in English, French, and German

 

Detailed Collection Information

Biographical Note

Nicklès taught in the Faculté des Sciences, Nancy (1854‑1869). His research included electric batteries (the topic of his thesis in physics, published in 1853), polymorphism (the topic of his thesis in chemistry published the same year), crystallography, fluorine, metallurgy, analysis of water and artificial lighting (see Nicklès Bibliography, below).

His early years and personal life are obscure as there are no biographies of him and only one brief obituary has been located so far. From the addresses on the letters he received and their topics, several salient facts can be discerned. He apparently spent most of his life in the Alsace‑Lorraine area of France; the most notable absences were the time he spent in Justus von Liebig's Laboratory in Giessen (1844‑1845) and his years in Paris (1851‑1854). He married in 1856 and had at least one child (born in 1857). He had at least two brothers, Napoleon and Laurent. In 1862 he was named Chevalier of the Legion d'Honneur.

His earliest training was in pharmacy and medicine; he was apparently apprenticed to a pharmicist named Trautmann in Woerth sur Sauer in 1840. By 1844 he is a student of medicine in Benfeld, receiving his "baccalaureat" that year. After returning from Giessen he was a preparator in the École de Pharmacie, Strasbourg. The following year Nickles is in the Académie de Strasbourg. He taught chemistry in Strasbourg at some point as he received a letter from Emile Reuss, dated February 13, 1845 (while Reuss is a student at Strasbourg), telling Nicklès that the students preferred the chemistry of M. Nicklès to that of M. Haas, his replacement.

By 1851 he receives a letter addressed to him as a chemist in Paris. In 1854 Nicklès is appointed to the Faculté des Sciences, Nancy. There he remains until his death as a result of his experiments with hydrofluoric acid.

Many of the letters Nicklès received introduced students who wished to study with him. Two series of letters present insights into the educational system in France in the middle of the nineteenth century. C. Kosmann was a pharmacist with a doctorate in science forced to return to school after the law regulating the preparation for such professionals was changed in 1854 (1). Where a lengthy apprenticeship had been sufficient since 1803, the new law required three years in an École Superieur after the apprenticeship. Emile Reuss describes his education and the licensing procedure (he passed his exam and received his license, August 9, 1845) in his correspondence during 1845.

In addition to education, Nicklès was involved with scientific publication. From 1846 to 1851 he was a collaborator with Eugène Millon and Jules de Reiset, editors of Annuaire de chimie. Millon was a military surgeon and pharmacist stationed in Algers after 1850. In his letters to Nicklès, Millon deplores his isolation from the scientific world and requests that his collaborator send him articles.

Nicklès was also involved with several scientific organizations including the Académie de Stanislas, Nancy (at one point he was president and on the Bonsfil prize committee), the Académie des Sciences, Paris, the Société des Secours des Amis des Sciences (a fund was established for the widow and family of Auguste Laurent), and other regional societies.

Nicklès also corresponded with several scientists who reviewed his articles for the Comptes Rendus, e.g. Henri V. Regnault. He also corresponded with several chemists involved in controversies in the mid‑nineteenth century. The debate between French and German chemists was often heated by nationalistic fervor; the topics included the causes of fermentation (Pasteur said a living organism, Liebig said a chemical ferment), history of chemistry (H. Kopp, F. Hoeffer and M. Bertholet all wrote histories, the latter claiming superiority over Kopp's earlier work), articles translated without the original author's name (Nicklès had this happen to one of his articles reprinted in Ateneo: see de Mueller, Paris, May 6, 1854) and system of atomic weights. (2)  Although Nicklès did not write about atomic weights, he knew the key figures in this debate (or their associates, e.g. William Odling, Charles Gerhardt and Eugène Millon). Nicklès' circle of acquaintances included many who were in Giessen. Among these was N.J.W. Laskowski who wrote to Nicklès that the conditions of the Russian laboratory in which he was working differed greatly from those he had known in Germany (October 14, 1846).

Description of Collection

The collection consists of approximately 1,000 letters from French, German and English scientists to François Joseph Jérôme Nicklès, a French chemist. A few letters are addressed to third parties and several of Nicklès' responses are included.     

In addition to giving insights into Nicklès' own career as a scientist and teacher, this collection illuminates the world of scientific networks and the international communication among nineteenth century scientists.

Organization and Arrangement

The collection is arranged alphabetically by the authors of the letters or documents; all letters are written to Nicklès unless otherwise noted.

 

Patron Information

Catalog Record

A record for this collection is available in Temple University’s online library catalog: http://diamond.temple.edu/record=b1639968~S30

Research Access

Collection is open for research.

Collections Stored Off-Site

This collection may be housed off-site at the Library Depository, and require up to two business days to retrieve. Please review the finding aid and be prepared to identify specific materials to be retrieved. Contact the Special Collections Research Center in advance of your visit, so that materials may be relocated to the reading room for research.

Publication and Copyright Information

The Francois Joseph Jérome Nicklés Papers are the physical property of the Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries. Intellectual property rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. Researchers are responsible for determining the identity of rights holders and obtaining their permission for publication and for other purposes where stated.

Preferred Citation

[Description and date of item], [Box/folder number], Francois Joseph Jérome Nicklés Papers, SPC MSS 006, Special Collections Research Center, Temple University Libraries, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

 

Administrative Information

Acquisition Information

Purchased from Alain Brieux in 1964.

Processing Information

Finding aid revised according to contemporary archival standards June 2017 by Sarah Lerner, Student Worker.    

           

Index Terms

The following headings have been used to index the description of this collection in Temple University’s electronic catalog:

Personal/Family Names:
Bazaine, Pierre-Dominique, 1809-1893
Boudet, Henri-Feĺix, 1806-1878
Buignet, Henri, 1815-1876
Chautard, Jules-Maria Augustin, 1826-1901
Decharmes, C
Dumas, J.-B. (Jean-Baptiste), 1800-1884
Geĺis, Amedeé, 1815-1882
Kauffmann, F. (Fritz), 1855-1934
Laurent, Mathieu Paul Herman, 1841-1908
Millon, Eugène, 1812-1867
Nickleś, Napoleón
Pasteur, Louis, 1822-1895
Reuss, Emile

Corporate Names:
Académie des sciences (France)
Faculté des Sciences-Nancy (France)

Subjects:
Crystallography
Education, Higher -- France
Electromagnetic theory
Mathematics -- Research -- France
Metallurgical research -- France
Pharmacists -- France
Pharmacy -- Research -- France
Science publishing -- France
Scientific literature -- France
Water -- France -- Composition

Material Types:
Correspondence

 

Inventory

1          1          Abria, Jeremie Joseph Benoit          November 14, 1853, March 20, 1861

1          2          Alglave, Emile          April 18, 1868

1          3          Amberger, P.          July 4-11, 1851

1          4          Auberger, Pierre‑Hector          December 16, 1855, 1867

1          5          Bailleul, Charles‑Henri          September 19, 1853, June 20, 1854

1          6          Balard, Antoine‑Jerome          September 16, 1853, June 24, 1855

1          7          Barral, Jean Auguste          September 2, 1850-September 1866

1          8          Barreswil, Charles‑Louis          Undated

1          9          Baudrimont, Alexandre‑Edouard          February 22, 1861-April 6, 1866

1          10          Bazaine, Achille & Adolphe          April 1, 1853, December 1, 1854

1          11          Bazaine, Pierre‑Dominique          August 1, 1850-September 6, 1863

1          12          de Beaumont, Elie           January 26, 1854-June 22, 1867

1          13          Bechamp, Pierre‑Jacques‑Antoine          May 11, 1840‑June 24, 1855

1          14          de Becordel, M.          March 24, 1863

1          15          Becquerel, Alexandre‑Edmond & Antoine-Cesar          April 19, 1853-June 15, 1857

1          16          Belleville, J.          September 22, 1853

1          17          Benard, Charles          Undated

1          18          Benoit, Charles          December 9, 1861‑June 4, 1867

1          19          Bernard, E.          May 8, 1868

1          20          Bernard, Felix          January 29, 1855-August 26, 1864

1          21          Bernardakis, A. N.          July 16, 1868

1          22          Berthelot, Marcelin          Undated

1          23          Bertin, Pierre‑Augustin          November 8, 1858, July 15, 1860

1          24          Bertini, Henry‑Jerome          October 14, 1863

1          25          Besse, L.          February 11, 1868

1          26          Bichon, W.          December 28, 1846

1          27          Billot, Paul Constant          March 14, 1856

1          28          Biot, Jean‑Baptiste          Undated

1          29          Blondeau, Charles          April 8, 1855‑December 29, 1868

1          30          Blondlot, Nicolas          October 4, 1855-May 11, 1864, undated

1          31          Blondot, Auguste          April 16, 1853

1          32          Bobierre, Adolphe          September 4, 1856

1          33          Bolley, P.          May 18, 1865‑June 15, 1866

1          34          Bouchez          July 27, 1856, August 1, 1856

1          35          Bouchotte          April 11, 1861‑August 1, 1866

1          36          Boudet, Henri‑Felix          July 26, 1857‑February 13, 1869, undated

1          37          Boudet, Henry          November 6, 1868, November 11, 1868

1          38          Bouillet, Nicholas           September 12, 1856, May 10, 1857

1          39          Bouis, Jules          Undated

1          40          Bouquet, Jean‑Pierre          September 8, 1852-July 10, 1866, undated

1          41          Boussingault, Jean-Baptiste          December 5, 1857-July 10, 1866

1          42          Boutarel (?), Aime          August 28, 1868

1          43          Boutron, Antoine‑Francois          November 21, 1856, June 13, 1863, undated

1          44          Braconnier, M. A.          March 22, 1869

1          45          Braconnot, Henri          June 10, 1868

1          46          Braine, Charles          October 6, 1856, March 6, 1867

1          47          Broeck, van den, W.          March 6, 1867

1          48          Brun, J.          February 17, 1863

1          49          Buignet, Henri          February 4, 1858- February 3, 1862, undated

1          50          Buquet, Henri‑Alfred‑Leopold, Baron          May 10, 1855-November 16, 1861

1          51          Buquet, Paul          May 31, 1864-October 29, 1868

1          52          Burnof, Emile‑Louis          July 3, 1861-October 18, 1862, undated

1          53          Bussy, Antoine‑Alexandre‑Brutus          Undated

1          54          Cahen, Michel‑Angel          May 24, 1860-July 23, 1860

1          55          Cahours, Auguste‑Andre‑Thomas Chemist          Undated

1          56          Calvert, F. Grover          July 12, 1861-June 20, 1864

1          57          Cap, Paul-Antoine          September 20, 1853-July 13, 1857

1          58          de Carex (Carez?), J.          September 4, 1868

1          59          de Castelnau, M. H.          November 2, 1857

1          60          Catala, Victor          March 17, 1847‑ January 9, 1856

1          61          Celle, A.          September 24, 1864

1          62          Chamel, Gustave          March 1, 1849, October 24, 1868

1          63          Chapelle, A.          October 24, 1868

1          64          Charles, Emile‑Auguste‑Edouard          November 23, 1867, undated

1          65          Charles, G.          October 18, 1861-December 3, 1865

1          67          Charon, M.          May 26, 1862

1          68          Charrat          April 13, 1862

1          69          Chatin, Gaspard‑Adolphe          September 7, 1858- May 15, 1867

1          70          Chautard, Jules‑Maria‑Augustin          September 24, 1856- June 16, 1865, undated

1          71          Chenot, Claude‑Bernard‑Adrien          July 22, 1854-November 24, 1854

1          72          Chenot, Alfred          October 31, 1854

1          73          Chenot, E.          October 24, 1854- December 5, 1854

1          74          Chevallier, Jean‑Baptiste‑Alphonse           April 11, 1858-June 29, 1865

1          75          Cheviet          August 9, 1864‑July 27, 1865

1          76          Chevrendis, E.          1858-1866

1          77          Chevrier          January 17, 1869-March 5, 1869

1          78          Clemm‑Lennig, C.          January 23, 1849-November 1, 1864

2          1          Conrad, A.          August 29, 1863, March 10, 1864

2          2          Cottereau, E.          June 2, 1852

2          3          Cottereau, J.          July 1, 1868, December 12, 1868

2          4          Danglish          July 17, 1861

2          5          Dannecy, Guyot          September 24, 1856

2          6          Daubree, Gabriel‑Auguste          July 29, 1859-October 29, 1868

2          7          Daumas, Melchoir‑Joseph‑Eugene          October 5, 1854

2          8          Debette, P.          June 17, 1848

2          9          Decharmes, C.          June 24, 1856-May 27, 1868

2          10          Deherain, Pierre‑Paul          December 2, 1865

2          11          Delesse, Achille‑Ernest‑Oscar‑Joseph           July 23, 1852‑January 19, 1869, undated

2          12          Denis, Prospere‑Sylvain          July 9, 1855-August 2, 1858

2          13          Descamps, V.          March 17, 1868

2          14          Designolle, G.          May 8, 1868

2          15          Dessaignes, Victor          July 21, 1866

2          16          Dollfus, Auguste          December 12, 1865-June 16, 1868

2          17          Dollfus, Eugene          October 22, 1868

2          18          Donne, Alfred          August 13, 1868

2          19          Dubrunfaut, Auguste‑Pierre          October 5, 1865-September 12, 1866

2          20          Ducomez, V.          Undated

2          21          Duffy, Patrick          August 26, 1852

2          22          Dufrenoy, Ours‑Pierre‑Armand Petit          Undated

2          23          Dumas, Jean‑Baptiste‑Andre          May 17, 1855-February 28, 1869, undated

2          24          Eberrvein, Henriette          July 4, 1865

2          25          Eisenlohr, H.          August 26, 1858-November 29, 1858

2          26          Fabre, C.          April 3, 1853‑1857

2          27          Fabre & Kunemann          February 11, 1855‑May 14, 1856, undated

2          28          Fabry          July 17, 1866

2          29          Fauchez, L.          Undated

2          30          Fauvel, Dr.          July 25, 1866

2          31          Favre, Pierre‑Antoine          November 27, 1886-November 30, 1867

2          32          Faye, C. S. (Mrs. H. A. Faye)          May 27, 1859

2          33          Faye, Herve‑Auguste‑Etienne‑Albans          July 27, 1855

2          34          Fiquier, Guillaume‑Louis          January 5, 1869

2          35          Flammarion, J.          Undated

2          36          Flourens, Marie‑Jean‑Pierre          August 22, 1850‑November 23, 1860

2          37          Fordos, Mathurin‑Joseph          October 14, 1852, October 27, 1861

2          38          Franchot, Louis          February 1, 1853

2          39          Franck, M. Franck & Cie., Fabrique De Toiles Metalliques          October 19, 1867

2          40          Fremy, Edmond          September 23, 1849

2          41          Freycinet, Charles‑Louis De          July 21, 1868

2          42          Friedel, Charles          March 20, 1867

2          43          Froment, Paul‑Gustave          June 14‑August 11, 1852

2          44          Gaillard, Dr.          April 17, 1863

2          45          Garnier, Paul          February 27, 1852

2          46          Gavarret, Louis‑Denis‑Jules          July 18, 1858, March 7, 1859

2          47          Gelis, Alfred          January 9, 1856‑November 30, 1864, undated

2          48          Gelis, Amedee          March 28, 1853-January 25, 1865, undated

2          49          Gilliot, Charles          January 21, 1867

2          50          Goguel, E.          July 10, 1845‑June 25, 1862

2          51          Goubert, E. M., Dr.          August 28, 1866, undated

2          52          Goussel‑Francois          November 10, 1868

2          53          Goutier, A.          April 17, 1867

2          54          Gouy, Jules (?)          July 16, 1865

2          55          Grad, Charles          October 1, 1868‑March 15, 1869

2          56          Grenier, Charles          May 29, 1846

2          57          Guerin          March 27, 1850- July 13, 1854

2          58          Guillebot de Nerville, L.           January 27‑December 16, 1853

2          59          Guinault, J.           September 5, 1867

2          60          Hager, H., Dr.           June 14, 1863

2          61          Harivel          December 27, 1866

2          62          Hement, Felix          Undated

2          63          Henry, Etienne‑Ossian          May 21, 1859‑February 1, 1867

2          64          Hirn, Gustave‑Adolphe          September 10, 1860-November 20, 1866

2          65          Hofmann, August Wilhelm Von          June 6, 1845

2          66          Husson          November 19, 1861‑December 17, 1864

2          67          Jamin, Jules Celestin          Undated

2          68          Jeandeline, F.           March 8, 1859

2          69          Jobard          Undated

2          70          Joly, Nicolas          February 14, 1862

2          71          Kampmann, F. E.          March 22, 1849-October 5, 1865, undated

2          72          Kauffmann, F.           September 9, 1843-February 16, 1854, undated

2          73          Kessler, L.           December 15, 1855-August 18, 1867

3          1          Kirschleger, Frederic          August 21, 1858-March 7, 1861

3          2          Komaroff, A.           January 12, 1861

3          3          Kopp, Emile          May 27, 1865

3          4          Kosmann, C.           December 31, 1845-December 29, 1863

3          5          Kuhlmann, Charles Frederic          December 19, 1861-December 31, 1866, undated

3          6          Kuhn, Dr.           September 27, 1856‑February 11, 1857

3          7          Kunemann, Eugene          January 11, 1855‑July 14, 1856

3          8          Lacroix, L.           June 29, 1857-October 28, 1866

3          9          Lahachele          December 7, 1865

3          10          Lambert, C.           April 21, 1862

3          11          Lamy, A.           March 31, 1853-June 7, 1860

3          12          Lamy, Claude‑Auguste          June 28, 1863-March 10, 1868

3          13          Landerer, H., Dr.           February 6, 1862

3          14          Langlois          December 18‑25, 1857

3          15          dee Larcy          Undated

3          16          Laskowski, N. J. W.           April 4, 1846, October 14, 1846

3          17          Laurent, Auguste          June 22, 1840, undated

3          18          Laurent, Madame A.           August 4, 1860, undated

3          19          Laurent, Mathieu Paul Herman          October 13, 1853‑September 13, 1868, undated

3          20          Lebrun, C.          August 11, 1867

3          21          Lebrun, F.           September 12, 1860‑July 21, 1866

3          22          Lecanu, Louis Rene          January 26, 1854‑July 15, 1858

3          23          Leclerc, Madame Veuve A.           Undated

3          24          Lefort, J.           Undated

3          25          Lembert, Dr.           May 15, 1865-November 24, 1865

3          26          Lepage, H.           December 25, 1860

3          27          Leplay, H.           March 16, 1852-August 23, 1860

3          28          Lereboullet, A.           March 12, 1858‑ February 26, 1864

3          29          Leroux, François Pierre          February 16, 1854

3          30          Leupol, L.           January 31, 1862-July 3, 1865, undated

3          31          Levallois, J.           July 12, 1860

3          32          Leverrier, Urbain Jean Joseph          May 12, 1862-April 11, 1868

3          33          Lewinstein, Gustav          February 22, 1859-March 30, 1859

3          34          Lies‑Bodart          August 12, 1847-August 12, 1867

3          35          de Luca, S.           May 8, 1854-November 2, 1855

3          36          Malinowsky, Ernest          March 23, 1847, March 3, 1852

3          37          Marechal, C. M.           December 6, 1861‑May 31, 1862

3          38          de Margerie, A.           May 14, 1865

3          39          Marie‑Davy, Edme. Hippolyte          Undated

3          40          Marmisse, Dr.           December 26, 1861, September 16, 1868

3          41          Masson, Georges          September 16, 1868

3          42          Maumene, E.           January 6, 1847‑November 11, 1863

3          43          Meaume, Edouard          January 13, 1860

3          44          Megewald          November 10, 1863

3          45          Megnin, L.           January 30‑March 3, 1868

3          46          Menard, Louis Nicolas          September 23, 1862‑May 26, 1863, undated

3          47          Meray, Antoine          December 29, 1858

3          48          Meunier, Amedee Victor          July 11, 1866‑March 19, 1869

3          49          Meunier, Etienne Stanislas          November 13, 1864‑February 4, 1868, undated

3          50          Mezieres, Alfred-Jean-Francois          Undated

3          51          Michaut, Paul          November 22, 1866‑September 17, 1867

3          52          Millon, Auguste Nicolas Eugene          January 6, 1849‑August 27, 1867, undated

3          53          Miltenberger          April 18, 1859

3          54          Minary, M.           November 8‑December 12, 1862

3          55          Morel, R.           April 14, 1855-March 29, 1858

3          56          Morey, Matthieu Prosper          June 26, 1867

3          57          Moride, Ed          October 26, 1851-February 27, 1866

3          58          Mouline, Eugene          February 11, 1863

3          59          de Mueller          May 6, 1854-June 25, 1861

3          60          Mulot          June 25, 1861

3          61          Nickles, François Joseph Jerome          April 27, 1852-April 15, 1853, undated

3          62          Nickles, Laurent          January 21, 1869- March 21, 1869

3          63          Nickles, Napoleon          January 12, 1854- October 7, 1868

3          64          Addenda (January 2005): Bibliography of Nickles’ Chemical Publications, Offprints of Articles of Josette Fournier in History of Chemistry          1999-2004

4          1          Chevalier de Noblat          June 12, 1860-July 3, 1864, undated

4          2          Odling, William          August 22, 1864

4          3          Paringault, Eugene          March 31, 1865, undated

4          4          Peire, C.          February 4, 1860‑May 7, 1867

4          5          Pelard, L.          June 26, 1851

4          6          Peligot, Eugene‑Melchior          April 20, 1854‑December 14, 1868

4          7          Pellet, H.          December 11, 1866

4          8          Pelouze, Theophile‑Jules          Undated

4          9          Perrot, Louis Jerome          May 1, 1862, October 31, 1862

4          10          Phipson, T. L.          September 24‑October 8, 1857, May 7, 1859

4          11          Pierre, Jerome          January 28, 1862‑November 30, 1866

4          12          Piot, L.          April 30, 1866

4          13          Piroux          June 13, 1862‑July 2, 1864

4          14          Poggiale, Antoine‑Baudoin          May 3, 1868

4          15          Prat, C.          July 28, 1854, undated

4          16          Prat, H.          November 30, 1867, May 8, 1868

4          17          Quesneville, Gustave Augustin          May 8-14, 1868

4          18          Regnault, Henri‑Victor          Undated

4          19          de Reiset, Jules          September 5, 1848-June 17, 1850, undated

4          20          Reuss, C.          February 1, 1851

4          21          Reuss, Emile          February 13, 1845‑June 23, 1865

4          22          Rigout, A.          June 19, 1848-April 10, 1868, undated

4          23          Rohart, F.          January 8‑25, 1865, undated

4          24          Trautmann, C.          May 11‑July 25, 1840, November 17, 1840‑December 3, 1841